Credit/Citations for Data Files distributed with Geant4

We acknowledge the use of external data libraries in compiling the Geant4 data libraries. Information on these sources is currently provided also in our publications, including NIM A 506 (2003), 250.

Photon Evaporation

Photon evaporation data comes from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) which is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Radioactive Decay

The radioactive decay data comes from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) which is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory.

G4NDL (with or without thermal neutrons)

Neutron cross-sections and final states are obtained from JEFF-3.3 (previously, before release 10.6, they were based mainly on ENDF/B-VII.1). Files not coming from JEFF-3.3 and corresponding to previous G4NDL versions are: JENDL_HE, IsotopeProduction, ThermalScattering, Inelastic/Gammas, Fission/FF. Information concerning the conversion process of JEFF-3.3 to the G4NDL format can be found in:

  • E.Mendoza and D.Cano-Ott, IAEA technical report INDC(NDS)-0758, Vienna, 2018.

The ENDF/B-VII library is developed and maintained by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). The original data files may be accessed at the National Nuclear Data Center web site.


Database translated from the TENDL-2014 incident proton data library (written in ENDF-6 format). The TENDL-2014 incident proton data library contains about 2600 isotopes. Only those isotopes present in the G4NDL neutron data library have been included in the G4TENDL database.
The complete TENDL-2014 library will be available at the IAEA web page [3].
The range of incident particle energies in TENDL-2014 is from 1 to 200 MeV.

  1. “TENDL-2014: TALYS-based evaluated nuclear data library”, A.J. Koning, D. Rochman, S. van der Marck, J. Kopecky, J. Ch. Sublet, S. Pomp, H. Sjostrand, R. Forrest, E. Bauge, H. Henriksson, O. Cabellos, S. Goriely J. Leppanen, H. Leeb, A. Plompen and R. Mills,
  2. A.J. Koning and D. Rochman, “Modern Nuclear Data Evaluation With The TALYS Code System”, Nuclear Data Sheets 113 (2012) 2841.
  4. M.B. Chadwick et al., “ENDF/B-VII.0: Next generation evaluated nuclear data library for nuclear science and technology”, Nucl. Data Sheets 107(2006)2931.

G4SAID (evaluated cross sections from SAID database)

Data evaluated from the SAID database for proton, neutron, pion inelastic, elastic, and charge exchange cross sections of nucleons below 3 GeV. Main reference:

  • Arndt et al., Evaluated Nucleon Cross Section Data Directory, Phys Rev C76: 025209, 2007.

G4PARTICLEXS (evaluated particle cross sections)

Evaluated data produced using data sets via averaging procedure for neutron energies E. Extension of the G4NEUTRONXS data-set, it is produced from G4NDL for neutrons, from G4TENDL for p, d, t, He3, He4 and from LEND for gammas.

G4NEUTRONXS (evaluated neutron cross sections) - obsolete as from release 10.5:
Evaluated data are produced using the G4NDL data set via averaging procedure for neutron energies E. For energies E>20 MeV the cross-sections are computed by Geant4 cross-section classes G4BGGNucleonInelasticXS and G4BGGNucleonElasticXS. For the interval E=10-20 MeV a linear interpolation is used.

G4ABLA (nuclear shell effects)

The data are based on ABLA V3 data files:

  • flalpha.dat - alpha ground state deformation
  • frldm.dat - ground state shell corr. frldm for a spherical g.s.
  • vgsld.dat - difference between deformed g.s. and ldm value
  • pace2.dat - default mass for A, Z nucleus

The data are meant to be used for the INCL/ABLA hadronic models.

G4INCL (proton and neutron density profiles)

Data set based on Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations for radius and diffuseness parameter for the proton and neutron density profiles.
The data are used for the INCL++ model, as described in the following publications:

  • K.Bennaceur and J.Dobaczewski, Comput. Phys. Commun. 168, 96 (2005).
  • J.L.Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-C.David, D.Mancusi, A.Boudard, J.Cugnon and S.Leray, Phys. Rev. C 96, 054602 (2017).

G4EMLOW (Low energy electromagnetic)

Livermore models data (except for the photoelectric_angular module) are derived from the Livermore data libraries:

  • EPDL97 - Evaluated Photon Data Library
  • EEDL - Evaluated Electron Data Library
  • EADL - Evaluated Atom Data Library

Data related to the Geant4-DNA extension have been collected from published material and/or by courtesy of their author. They are described in the following publications:

The data have been reformatted for usage in Geant4 and some files contain values resulting from fitting of the original data.
Data related to PIXE simulation are collected from the available literature.

G4PII (Precise Impact Ionisation)

Cross section data for impact ionisation. References and credit for the physics sources and software used to produce the data set are:

  • M. G. Pia, G. Weidenspointner, M. Augelli, L. Quintieri, P. Saracco, M. Sudhakar, A. Zoglauer, PIXE simulation with Geant4, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 3614-3649, Dec. 2009.
  • W. Brandt and G. Lapicki, Energy-loss effect in inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles, Phys. Rev. A, vol. 23, 1717, 1981.
  • G. Lapicki, The status of theoretical K-shell ionization cross sections by protons, X-Ray Spectrom., vol. 34, pp. 269-278, 2005.
  • G. Lapicki, Scaling of analytical cross sections for K-shell ionization by non-relativistic protons to cross sections by protons at relativistic velocities, J. Phys. B, vol. 41, pp. 115201, 2008.
  • Z. Liu and S. J. Cipolla, ISICS: A program for calculating K-, L-, and M-shell cross sections from ECPSSR theory using a personal computer, Comput. Phys. Comm., vol. 97, pp. 315\u2013330, 1996.
  • S. J. Cipolla, An improved version of ISICS: a program for calculating K, L, and M-shell cross sections from PWBA and ECPSSR theory using a personal computer, Comp. Phys. Comm., vol. 176, pp. 157-159, 2007.
  • S. J. Cipolla, The united atom approximation option in the ISICS program to calculate K, L, and M-shell cross sections from PWBA and ECPSSR theory, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 261, pp. 142-144, 2007.
  • S. Cipolla, ISICS, 2008 version. Private communication Creighton Univ., Omaha NE 68178.
  • H. Paul and J. Sacher, Fitted empirical reference cross sections for K-shell ionization by protons, Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables, vol. 42, pp. 105-156, 1989.
  • A. Kahoul, M. Nekkab, and B. Deghfel, Empirical K-shell ionization cross-sections of elements from 4Be to 92U by proton impact, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 266, pp. 4969-4975, 2008.
  • H. Paul and O. Bolik, Fitted Empirical Reference Cross Sections for K-Shell Ionization by Alpha Particles, Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables, vol. 54, pp. 75-131, 1993.
  • Y. Miyagawa et al., Analytical Formulas for Ionization Cross Sections and Coster-Kronig Corrected Fluorescence Yields of the Ll, L2, and L3 Subshells, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 30, pp. 115-122, 1988.
  • I. Orlic et al., Semi-empirical Formulas for Calculation of L Subshell Ionization Cross Sections, Int. J. PIXE, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 217-230, 1994.
  • C. H. Sow et al., New parameters for the calculation of L subshell ionization cross sections, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 75, pp. 58-62, 1993.

Real Surface (measured optical surface reflectance LUT)

The data for measured optical surface reflectance look-up tables are described in:

G4ENSDFSTATE (nuclide state properties database)

Data set of nuclides state properties derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File